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Surreal Scenes of Life Under ISIS in Mosul, Iraq Isis Logo

In Raqqa, after rebel forces drove out the Assad regime and ISIL infiltrated the town, "first dozens and then hundreds of people disappeared".

Security and intelligence expert Martin Reardon has described ISIL's purpose as being to psychologically "break" those under its control, "so as to ensure their absolute allegiance through fear and intimidation", while generating "outright hate and vengeance" among its enemies.

It aims to mobilise its supporters by motivating them with, for example, spectacular deadly attacks deep in Western territory such as the November Paris attacks , to polarise by driving Muslim populations — particularly in the West — away from their governments, thus increasing the appeal of ISIL's self-proclaimed caliphate among them, and to: "Eliminate neutral parties through either absorption or elimination".

A work published online in entitled Management of Savagery [] Idarat at Tawahoush , described by several media outlets as influential on ISIL [] [] [] and intended to provide a strategy to create a new Islamic caliphate, [] recommended a strategy of attack outside its territory in which fighters would "Diversify and widen the vexation strikes against the Crusader-Zionist enemy in every place in the Islamic world, and even outside of it if possible, so as to disperse the efforts of the alliance of the enemy and thus drain it to the greatest extent possible.

Raqqa in Syria was under ISIL control from and in it became the group's de facto capital city. Advising al-Baghdadi is a cabinet of senior leaders, while its operations in Iraq and Syria are controlled by local 'emirs,' who head semi-autonomous groups which the Islamic State refers to as its provinces.

In addition, a shura council has the task of ensuring that all decisions made by the governors and councils comply with the group's interpretation of sharia.

According to Iraqis, Syrians and analysts who study the group, almost all of ISIL's leaders—including the members of its military and security committees and the majority of its emirs and princes—are former Iraqi military and intelligence officers, specifically former members of Saddam Hussein 's Ba'ath government who lost their jobs and pensions in the de-Ba'athification process after that regime was overthrown.

In August , media reports based on briefings by Western intelligence agencies suggested that ISIL had a multilevel secret service known in Arabic as Emni , established in , that has become a combination of an internal police force and an external operations directorate complete with regional branches.

The unit was believed to be under the overall command of ISIL's most senior Syrian operative, spokesman and propaganda chief Abu Mohammad al-Adnani [] [] until his death by airstrike in late August President Donald Trump stated in a televised announcement that Baghdadi had, in fact, died during the operation and that American forces used support from helicopters, jets and drones through airspace controlled by Russia and Turkey.

Iraq was excellent. We really had great cooperation" and Turkey knew they were going in. On 29 October , Trump stated on social media that al-Baghdadi's "number one replacement" had been killed by American forces, without giving a name.

Social control of civilians was by imposition of ISIL's reading of sharia law, [] enforced by morality police forces known as Al-Hisbah and the all-women Al-Khanssaa Brigade , a general police force, courts, and other entities managing recruitment, tribal relations, and education.

Estimates of the size of ISIL's military have varied widely, from tens of thousands [] up to , According to Abu Hajjar, a former senior leader of ISIL, foreign fighters receive food, petrol and housing, but unlike native Iraqi or Syrian fighters, they do not receive payment in wages.

ISIL relies mostly on captured weapons with major sources including Saddam Hussein 's Iraqi stockpiles from the —11 Iraq insurgency [] and weapons from government and opposition forces fighting in the Syrian Civil War and during the post-US withdrawal Iraqi insurgency.

The captured weapons, including armour, guns, surface-to-air missiles, and even some aircraft, enabled rapid territorial growth and facilitated the capture of additional equipment.

The group uses truck and car bombs , suicide bombers and IEDs , and has used chemical weapons in Iraq and Syria. The group closed the gates of the smaller Nuaimiyah dam in Fallujah in April , flooding the surrounding regions, while cutting the water supply to the Shia -dominated south.

The economy of the region also suffered with destruction of cropland and electricity shortages. During the Battle of Mosul , commercially available quadcopters and drones were being used by ISIL as surveillance and weapons delivery platforms using improvised cradles to drop grenades and other explosives.

Although ISIL attracts followers from different parts of the world by promoting the image of holy war, not all of its recruits end up in combatant roles.

There have been several cases of new recruits expecting to be mujahideen who have returned from Syria disappointed by the everyday jobs that were assigned to them.

ISIL publishes material directed at women, with media groups encouraging them to play supportive roles within ISIL, such as providing first aid, cooking, nursing and sewing skills, in order to become "good wives of jihad".

Until , women were generally confined to a "women's house" upon arrival which they were forbidden to leave. These houses were often small, dirty and infested with vermin and food supply was scarce.

There they remained until they either had found a husband, or the husband they had arrived with had completed his training.

After being allowed to leave the confinement, women still generally spent most of their days indoors where their lives are devoted to caring for their husbands and the vast majority of women in the conflict area have children.

Mothers play an important role passing on ISIL ideology to their children. Widows are encouraged to remarry. In a document entitled Women in the Islamic State: Manifesto and Case Study released by the media wing of ISIL's all-female Al-Khanssaa Brigade , emphasis is given to the paramount importance of marriage and motherhood as early as nine years old.

Women should live a life of "sedentariness", fulfilling her "divine duty of motherhood" at home, with a few exceptions like teachers and doctors.

ISIL is known for its extensive and effective use of propaganda. In November , shortly after the group's rebranding as the "Islamic State of Iraq", it established the Al-Furqan Foundation for Media Production, which produces CDs, DVDs, posters, pamphlets, and web-related propaganda products and official statements.

In July , al-Hayat began publishing a digital magazine called Dabiq , in a number of different languages including English. The group also runs a radio network called Al-Bayan , which airs bulletins in Arabic, Russian and English and provides coverage of its activities in Iraq, Syria and Libya.

ISIL's use of social media has been described by one expert as "probably more sophisticated than [that of] most US companies". The group is known for releasing videos and photographs of executions of prisoners, whether beheadings, shootings, caged prisoners being burnt alive or submerged gradually until drowned.

The escalating violence of its killings "guarantees" the attention of the media and public. Along with images of brutality, ISIL presents itself as "an emotionally attractive place where people 'belong', where everyone is a 'brother' or 'sister'".

The "most potent psychological pitch" of ISIL media is the promise of heavenly reward to dead jihadist fighters. Frequently posted in their media are dead jihadists' smiling faces, the ISIL 'salute' of a 'right-hand index finger pointing heavenward', and testimonies of happy widows.

It has encouraged sympathisers to initiate vehicle-ramming and attacks worldwide. According to a study by the Financial Action Task Force , ISIL's five primary sources of revenue are as follows listed in order of significance :.

Since , ISIL has produced annual reports giving numerical information on its operations, somewhat in the style of corporate reports, seemingly in a bid to encourage potential donors.

ISIL attempted to create a modern gold dinar by minting gold, silver, and copper coins, based on the coinage used by the Umayyad Caliphate in the 7th century.

In Iraq and Syria, ISIL used many of those countries' existing governorate boundaries to subdivide territory it conquered and claimed; it called these divisions wilayah or provinces.

By March , ISIL had lost most of its territory in its former core areas in Syria and Iraq, and was reduced to a desert pocket as well as insurgent cells.

The group has attracted widespread criticism internationally for its extremism, from governments and international bodies such as the United Nations and Amnesty International.

They should more fittingly be called the 'Un-Islamic Non-State'. The group was described as a cult in a Huffington Post column by notable cult authority Steven Hassan.

Twitter has removed many accounts used to spread IS propaganda, and Google developed a "Redirect Method" which identifies individuals searching for IS-related material and redirects them to content which challenges IS narratives.

The group's declaration of a caliphate has been criticised and its legitimacy has been disputed by Middle Eastern governments, by Sunni Muslim theologians and historians as well as other jihadist groups.

Around the world, Islamic religious leaders have overwhelmingly condemned ISIL's ideology and actions, arguing that the group has strayed from the path of true Islam and that its actions do not reflect the religion's real teachings or virtues.

Extremism within Islam goes back to the 7th century, to the Khawarijes. From their essentially political position, the Kharijites developed extreme doctrines which set them apart from both mainstream Sunni and Shia Muslims.

They were particularly noted for adopting a radical approach to takfir , whereby they declared other Muslims to be unbelievers and therefore deemed worthy of death.

ISIS has been excommunicated from Islam by a number of scholars. Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi enumerated in his book, Refuting ISIS , that their form of Kharijism has removed them from Islam and fighting them is a religious duty, stating: "ISIS' leaders are people of unbelief and misguidance, and Muslims should not be lured by their jihad or deceived by their propaganda, as their actions speak louder than their words.

However, the correct opinion is that they are unbelievers. Referring to the "self-described 'Islamic State'", the letter censures the group for carrying out killings and acts of brutality under the guise of jihad —holy struggle—saying that its "sacrifice" without legitimate cause, goals and intention "is not jihad at all, but rather, warmongering and criminality".

The current Grand Imam of al-Azhar and former president of al-Azhar University , Ahmed el-Tayeb , has strongly condemned the Islamic State, stating that it is acting "under the guise of this holy religion and have given themselves the name 'Islamic State' in an attempt to export their false Islam".

This is the disgrace for them in this world and in the hereafter, they will receive grievous torment. In late December , nearly 70, Indian Muslim clerics associated with the Indian Barelvi movement issued a fatwa condemning ISIL and similar organisations, saying they are "not Islamic organisations".

Approximately 1. Hassan Hassan, an analyst at the Delma Institute, wrote in The Guardian that because the Islamic State "bases its teachings on religious texts that mainstream Muslim clerics do not want to deal with head on, new recruits leave the camp feeling that they have stumbled on the true message of Islam".

Theologian and Qatar-based TV broadcaster Yusuf al-Qaradawi stated: "[The] declaration issued by the Islamic State is void under sharia and has dangerous consequences for the Sunnis in Iraq and for the revolt in Syria", adding that the title of caliph can "only be given by the entire Muslim nation", not by a single group.

To this end, they pick and choose the evidences that corroborate their misguidance, despite being weak or abrogated. Academics Robyn Creswell and Bernard Haykel of The New Yorker have criticized ISIL's execution of Muslims for breach of traditional sharia law while violating it simultaneously themselves encouraging women to emigrate to its territory, travelling without a Wali —male guardian—and in violation of his wishes.

The protest was led by the leader of the French Council of the Muslim Faith , Dalil Boubakeur , and was joined by thousands of other Muslims around the country under the slogan "Not in my name".

Hollande also called for three days of national mourning, with flags flown at half-mast throughout the country and said that security would be increased throughout Paris.

According to The New York Times , "All of the most influential jihadist theorists are criticising the Islamic State as deviant, calling its self-proclaimed caliphate null and void" and they have denounced it for its beheadings of journalists and aid workers.

The cases are different, from robberies to drug use, to moral crimes. It's our duty to look at any crime that comes to us After the regime has fallen, we believe that the Muslim majority in Syria will ask for an Islamic state.

Of course, it's very important to point out that some say the Islamic Sharia will cut off people's hands and heads, but it only applies to criminals.

And to start off by killing, crucifying etc. That is not correct at all. This goes against the beliefs of religious scholars around the world.

This is what [IS] did wrong. This is going to cause a lot of trouble. Anyone who opposes [IS] will be considered against Sharia and will be severely punished.

Al-Qaeda and al-Nusra have been trying to take advantage of ISIL's rise, by attempting to present themselves as "moderate" compared to "extremist" ISIL, although they have the same aim of establishing sharia and a caliphate, but doing so in a more gradual manner.

It supports the gradual, slower approach favoured by al-Qaeda, preparing society to accept sharia and indoctrinating people through education before implementing the hudud aspects in sharia, which they believe supports punishments such as throwing homosexuals from the top of buildings, chopping limbs off, and public stoning.

However, while al-Nusra has typically destroyed Druze shrines and pressured them to convert to Sunni Islam, ISIL regards the entire Druze community as a valid target for violence, as it does the Yazidis.

In September , Ayman al-Zawahiri , the leader of al-Qaeda, called for consultation shura within the "prophetic method" to be used when establishing the caliphate, criticising al-Baghdadi for not following the required steps.

He called upon jihadists to establish Islamic entities in Egypt and the Levant, slowly implementing sharia before establishing a caliphate, and has called for violent assaults against America and the West.

They use the verses talking about the disbelievers and implement it on the Muslims". Scholar Ian Almond criticised the media commentators, the lack of balance in reporting, and the "way we are learning to talk about ISIS.

For anyone familiar with the history of both U. In bombing ISIS and its would-be imperialism, we are really bombing a version of ourselves.

Author and commentator Tom Engelhardt attributed the rise of ISIL and the destruction that followed to what he dubbed as America's drive to establish its own caliphate in the region.

Although the group is described as medieval in the pejorative sense, "it is also hyper-modern, interested in few of the trappings of a conventional state apart from its own brutal brand of law enforcement.

In fact, it is more of a network than a nation, having made canny use of social media to exert influence far beyond its geographical base.

The United Nations Security Council in its Resolution described Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda associates as operators of a network of terrorist training camps.

On 2 June , the group was added to its listing under the name "Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant". Many world leaders and government spokespeople have called ISIL a terrorist group or banned it, without their countries having formally designated it as such.

The following are examples:. He added, "Today's ban is directed solely against terrorists who abuse religion for their criminal goals.

In October , Switzerland banned ISIL's activities in the country, including propaganda and financial support of the fighters, with prison sentences as potential penalties.

Pakistan designated ISIL as a banned organisation in late August , under which all elements expressing sympathy for the group would be blacklisted and sanctioned.

Media sources worldwide have described ISIL as a terrorist organisation. By , ISIL was increasingly being viewed as a militia in addition to a terrorist group and a cult.

They have shadow governments in and around Baghdad , and they have an aspirational goal to govern. I don't know whether they want to control Baghdad, or if they want to destroy the functions of the Iraqi state, but either way the outcome will be disastrous for Iraq.

They have incredible command and control and they have a sophisticated reporting mechanism from the field that can relay tactics and directives up and down the line.

They are well-financed, and they have big sources of manpower, not just the foreign fighters, but also prisoner escapees.

Former US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel saw an "imminent threat to every interest we have", but former top counter-terrorism adviser Daniel Benjamin derided such talk as a "farce" that panics the public.

Writing for The Guardian , Pankaj Mishra rejects the idea that the group is a resurgence of medieval Islam, saying instead:.

In actuality, Isis is the canniest of all traders in the flourishing international economy of disaffection: the most resourceful among all those who offer the security of collective identity to isolated and fearful individuals.

It promises, along with others who retail racial, national and religious supremacy, to release the anxiety and frustrations of the private life into the violence of the global.

The article stated that the group had 40, fighters and 60, supporters across its two primary strongholds in Iraq and Syria. According to a poll by Pew Research Center , Muslim populations of various countries have overwhelmingly negative views of ISIL with Lebanon having the most unfavorable views.

ISIL's claims to territory have brought it into armed conflict with many governments, militias and other armed groups.

International rejection of ISIL as a terrorist entity and rejection of its claim to even exist have placed it in conflict with countries around the world.

According to a joint statement issued by 59 national governments and the European Union on 3 December , participants in the Counter-ISIL Coalition are focused on multiple lines of effort: [].

Lebanon, which the U. The U. On December 21, , over 33 Islamist militants were killed in Mali by French forces using attack helicopters, drones and ground troops, alongside the border with Mauritania where an Al-Qaeda-linked group operates.

Iran [] — military advisors, training, ground troops, and air power in Iraq and Syria, beside Iranian borders see Iranian intervention in Iraq.

Russia [] [] — arms supplier to Iraqi and Syrian governments. Azerbaijan [] [] — security operations within state borders.

Pakistan — Military deployment over Saudi Arabia-Iraq border. Yemen Supreme Political Council []. Hezbollah []. Al-Nusra Front is a branch of al-Qaeda operating in Syria.

Al-Nusra has launched many attacks and bombings , mostly against targets affiliated with or supportive of the Syrian government. They subscribe to the same perverted interpretations of Islam.

Other common traits include a penchant for suicide attacks, and sophisticated exploitation of the internet and social media. On 10 September , an audio message was released by al-Qaeda's leader Ayman al-Zawahiri criticising ISIL's self-proclaimed caliphate and accusing it of "sedition".

This was described by some media outlets as a "declaration of war". It also documented the beheading of three Derna residents and dozens of seemingly politically motivated assassinations of judges, public officials, members of the security forces and others.

Sarah Leah Watson, Director of HRW Middle East and North Africa, said: "Commanders should understand that they may face domestic or international prosecution for the grave rights abuses their forces are committing.

Speaking of ISIL's methods, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights has stated that the group "seeks to subjugate civilians under its control and dominate every aspect of their lives through terror, indoctrination, and the provision of services to those who obey".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Salafi jihadist terrorist and militant group. Flag [1]. Seal [2]. Map legend. Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.

Iraqi government. Syrian government. Lebanese government. Iraqi Kurdistan forces. Syrian Kurdistan forces. Syrian opposition forces.

Turkish Armed Forces. Tahrir al-Sham HTS. Detailed current maps. List of combatant numbers. Civilian population.

Many others. Originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad [77]. Texts and sciences. Culture and society. Related topics.

Kirkpatrick, The New York Times []. See also: Islamic eschatology. See also: Amaq News Agency. Main article: Modern gold dinar. Main article: ISIL territorial claims.

See also: Khawarij. See also: List of designated terrorist groups and Terrorism. Modern history portal War portal Asia portal Iraq portal.

The Independent. Terrorism Monitor. Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 30 September BBC News. Hindustan Times. Institute for the Study of War.

Australian National Security. Australian Government. Retrieved 22 July Mapping Militant Organizations. Stanford University.

Archived from the original PDF on 26 February New Statesman. Retrieved 6 October Anti-Defamation League. With Beheading". Dabiq included anti-gay rhetoric with much more frequency than Inspire.

In addition to using homosexuality as an example of sin and immorality, Dabiq also had at least three quotes in which homosexuality was associated with the death penalty.

Retrieved 31 October The New York Times. Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi's Blog. Rewards for Justice. Archived from the original on 18 May Bloomberg News.

Retrieved 14 August The Guardian. Retrieved 31 August Brookings Institution. Archived from the original PDF on 28 March Business Insider.

Jihadist News. DoD News. United States Department of Defense. Stars and Stripes. Department of State, Bureau of Diplomatic Security.

International Business Times. Wa'il, killed in airstrike, Pentagon confirms". Retrieved 1 November Agence France-Presse.

Russia: TV-Novosti. The National. Al-Masdar News. Voice of America. The Washington Post. War on the Rocks. Retrieved 1 July US Department of Defense.

Archived from the original on 7 May Retrieved 11 May RAND Corporation. Retrieved 1 April Madrid: Prisa. Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera Media Network.

Global Operations. Department of Defense — Government of Australia. Retrieved 25 October National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces. Retrieved 6 March Financial Times.

La Difesa: ipotesi da valutare". Corriere della Sera. World Politics Review. Homeland Security Today. Wide Open Spaces.

Al Masdar News. Military Times. Telegraph Media Group Limited. June Research Notes Report. The debate over what to call Iraq's terror group".

Retrieved 21 June The Wall Street Journal. Free Word Centre. Archived from the original on 12 June Retrieved 22 November The Jerusalem Post.

Al Akhbar. Archived from the original on 24 August Oriental Review. Islam and Economic Policy. Edinburgh University Press. London Review of Books.

Archived from the original PDF on 9 October Retrieved 6 April Oxford University Press. The World Post.

Archived from the original on 19 February The Daily Star. Beirut, Lebanon. Amnesty International. Archived from the original PDF on 12 March Long War Journal.

Archived from the original on 19 January In Bowering The New York Review of Books. New York. The Straits Times. Retrieved 11 December Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.

Press TV. Archived from the original on 11 July Institute for Study of War. The Age. VOA News. Retrieved 27 October Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.

Wall Street Journal. One group, many names". Retrieved 2 December Al Arabiya English. Retrieved 15 June The Inquisitr.

Retrieved 20 June United States Department of State. Retrieved 18 June What to call militants in Iraq". Retrieved 16 August Abu Dhabi.

European Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 15 August International Business Times UK.

Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 12 July White House. Retrieved 13 October United Nations. Archived from the original on 28 October Ottawa Citizen.

Andalou Agency. Retrieved 14 October Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 21 November Government of the United Kingdom.

Retrieved 22 December The final expression of Islamic government found in the Middle East would seem to be the purest, yet actually represents the most dangerous form: theocratic Islam.

Nevertheless, ISIS is neither a terrorist organization nor a political party; instead, it is a theocratic proto-state. Seeking Security in an Insecure World.

Retrieved 2 February PennState Presidential Leadership Academy. Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved 30 November Archived from the original on 9 September Retrieved 29 September Huffington Post UK.

Archived from the original on 17 September The Economist. Retrieved 7 November Al Arabiyah News English. Retrieved 5 October Gulf News 10 September Archived from the original on 1 August Retrieved 1 August The Atlantic.

Retrieved 19 February New York: St. Martin's Press. Retrieved 5 September Office of the Director of National Intelligence. See page 2 onwards.

Archived from the original PDF on 22 May Alex 3 September NBC News. Inside Isis: The first Western journalist ever to be given access to the 'Islamic State' has just returned — and this is what he discovered".

Retrieved 3 October Retrieved 4 October Something that I don't understand at all is the enthusiasm in their plan of religious cleansing, planning to kill the non-believers They also will kill Muslim democrats because they believe that non-ISIL-Muslims put the laws of human beings above the commandments of God.

These were very difficult discussions, especially when they were talking about the number of people who they are willing to kill. They were talking about hundreds of millions.

They were enthusiastic about it, and I just cannot understand that. Retrieved 6 July Los Angeles Times.

But what does the standard of the self-declared Islamic State—also known by its previous name, ISIS, or the Islamic State in Iraq and greater Syria—tell observers about the goals of the organization and its supporters?

Volumes, say experts in Islamic militant movements. Even more rough around the edges is the white circle in the middle of the ISIS flag.

The use of the seal, critics of ISIS say, is intended to add a veneer of historical authenticity to its mission. The issue has stirred up emotions across the Islamic world.

An Egyptian feminist, Aliaa Magda Elmahdy, recently held an extremely graphic protest intended to desecrate the ISIS flag, stirring up further controversy.

Rather, it appropriated the flag from other jihad-oriented groups, says Magnus Ranstorp, an expert on Islamic fundamentalist movements and the Research Director of the Centre for Asymmetric Threat Studies at the Swedish National Defense College.

It is not just the color of jihad and of the caliphate, but it represents the coming of what some believers see as the final battle and the day of resurrection.

To some Muslims, the choice of flag is worrying because of the symbolic weight of its absence of color. But like the flags of other jihadist groups the al-Nusra Front and Hizb ut-Tahrir—which also seeks a worldwide caliphate to replace nation-states laid out by Western powers nearly a century years ago—the ISIS flag is set in stark, featureless black.

If one understood that properly, you could use that to detect who is really involved. In many places they are selling rings with the same Seal of Mohammed.

This symbol tells us where they have come from, the sacredness of their mission and what they want — a caliphate.

Contact us at editors time.

Saudi Arabia. But the account is broadly consistent with other evidence about initiations, and scholars rely heavily on it when studying the subject. Wpt, Janice W. The U. She was believed to help the dead enter the afterlife as she had helped Osiris, Eintrittskarten Verkaufen she was considered the divine Party Uk of Etoro Bitcoin Kaufen pharaohwho was likened to Horus. Rewards for Justice. Demzufolge seien Sozialleistungen Krankenversicherung, Heiratsbeihilfen und Unterstützungszahlungen für die Familien getöteter oder inhaftierter Kämpfer initiiert worden. Sky Erfahrungen 2020 wurde Laptop Гјberwachen In den ersten Tagen der Offensive rückten Truppen auf Mossul vor und eroberten bis zum Siehe auch : Islamistischer Terrorismus in Deutschland. Ihr Tod wurde ohne Verifizierung der Umstände am

Isis Logo - Publikationen

In: Deutsche Welle , 3. Siehe auch : Doppelanschlag in Teheran am 7. Juli , abgerufen am In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , 9. Rund eine Million Iraker befanden sich auf der Flucht. Der IS und die systematische Zerstörung archäologischer Fundstellen.

Isis therefore guaranteed fertile harvests and protected the ships that carried the resulting food across the seas—and thus ensured the well-being of the empire as a whole.

Both Plutarch and a later philosopher, Proclus , mentioned a veiled statue of the Egyptian goddess Neith , whom they conflated with Isis, citing it as an example of her universality and enigmatic wisdom.

It bore the words "I am all that has been and is and will be; and no mortal has ever lifted my mantle. Isis was also said to benefit her followers in the afterlife, which was not much emphasized in Greek and Roman religion.

They characterized this afterlife inconsistently. Some said they would benefit from Osiris's enlivening water while others expected to sail to the Fortunate Isles of Greek tradition.

As in Egypt, Isis was said to have power over fate, which in traditional Greek religion was a power not even the gods could defy.

Valentino Gasparini says this control over destiny binds together Isis's disparate traits. She governs the cosmos, yet she also relieves people of their comparatively trivial misfortunes, and her influence extends into the realm of death, which is "individual and universal at the same time".

More than a dozen Egyptian deities were worshipped outside Egypt in Hellenistic and Roman times in a series of interrelated cults, though many were fairly minor.

In Roman times he became, like Dionysus, a symbol of a joyous afterlife, and the Isis cult increasingly focused on him.

He absorbed traits from Greek deities such as Apollo and served as a god of the sun and of crops. Isis also had an extensive network of connections with Greek and Roman deities, as well as some from other cultures.

She was not fully integrated into the Greek pantheon, but she was at different times equated with a variety of Greek mythological figures, including Demeter, Aphrodite, or Io , a human woman who was turned into a cow and chased by the goddess Hera from Greece to Egypt.

Many of the aretalogies include long lists of goddesses with whom Isis was linked. These texts treat all the deities they list as forms of her, suggesting that in the eyes of the authors she was a summodeistic being: the one goddess for the entire civilized world.

At the same time, Hellenistic philosophers frequently saw the unifying, abstract principle of the cosmos as divine. Many of them reinterpreted traditional religions to fit their concept of this highest being, as Plutarch did with Isis and Osiris.

One aretalogy avoids this problem by calling Isis and Serapis, who was often said to subsume many male gods, the two "unique" deities.

Images of Isis made outside Egypt were Hellenistic in style, like many of the images of her made in Egypt in Hellenistic and Roman times.

The attributes she bore varied widely. As Isis-Fortuna or Isis-Tyche she held a rudder, representing control of fate, in her right hand and a cornucopia , standing for abundance, in her left.

Statue of Isis-Persephone with corkscrew locks of hair and a sistrum, from Gortyna , second century CE. Bronze figurine of Isis-Fortuna with a cornucopia and a rudder, first century CE.

Fresco of Isis wearing a crescent headdress and resting her foot on a celestial sphere, first century CE.

Like most cults of the time, the Isis cult did not require its devotees to worship Isis exclusively , and their level of commitment probably varied greatly.

However, the word— Isiacus or "Isiac"—was rarely used. Isiacs were a very small proportion of the Roman Empire's population, [] but they came from every level of society , from slaves and freedmen to high officials and members of the imperial family.

Jaime Alvar suggests the cult attracted male suspicion simply because it gave women a venue to act outside their husbands' control. Priests of Isis were known for their distinctive shaven heads and white linen clothes, both characteristics drawn from Egyptian priesthoods and their requirements of ritual purity.

Temples to Egyptian deities outside Egypt, such as the Red Basilica in Pergamon , the Temple of Isis at Pompeii , or the Iseum Campense in Rome, were built in a largely Greco-Roman style but, like Egyptian temples, were surrounded by large courts enclosed by walls.

They were decorated with Egyptian-themed artwork, sometimes including antiquities imported from Egypt. Their layout was more elaborate than that of traditional Roman temples and included rooms for housing priests and for various ritual functions, with a cult statue of the goddess in a secluded sanctuary.

The daily ritual still entailed dressing the statue in elaborate clothes each morning and offering it libations, but in contrast with Egyptian tradition, the priests allowed ordinary devotees of Isis to see the cult statue during the morning ritual, pray to it directly, and sing hymns before it.

Another object of veneration in these temples was water, which was treated as a symbol of the waters of the Nile.

Isis temples built in Hellenistic times often included underground cisterns that stored this sacred water, raising and lowering the water level in imitation of the Nile flood.

Many Roman temples instead used a pitcher of water that was worshipped as a cult image or manifestation of Osiris. Roman lararia , or household shrines, contained statuettes of the penates , a varied group of protective deities chosen based on the preferences of the members of the household.

The cult asked both ritual and moral purity of its devotees, periodically requiring ritual baths or days-long periods of sexual abstinence.

Isiacs sometimes displayed their piety on irregular occasions, singing Isis's praises in the streets or, as a form of penance , declaring their misdeeds in public.

Some temples to Greek deities, including Serapis, practiced incubation , in which worshippers slept in a temple hoping that the god would appear to them in a dream and give them advice or heal their ailments.

Some scholars believe that this practice took place in Isis's temples, but there is no firm evidence that it did. Some temples of Isis performed mystery rites to initiate new members of the cult.

These rites were claimed to be of Egyptian origin, and they may have drawn on the secretive tendencies of some Egyptian rites.

The Golden Ass , in describing how the protagonist joins Isis's cult, gives the only detailed account of Isiac initiation. But the account is broadly consistent with other evidence about initiations, and scholars rely heavily on it when studying the subject.

Ancient mystery rites used a variety of intense experiences, such as nocturnal darkness interrupted by bright light and loud music and noise, to overwhelm their senses and give them an intense religious experience that felt like direct contact with the god they devoted themselves to.

After entering the innermost part of Isis's temple at night, he says, "I came to the boundary of death and, having trodden on the threshold of Proserpina , I travelled through all the elements and returned.

In the middle of the night I saw the sun flashing with bright light, I came face to face with the gods below and the gods above and paid reverence to them from close at hand.

Roman calendars listed the two most important festivals of Isis as early as the first century CE. The first festival was the Navigium Isidis in March, which celebrated Isis's influence over the sea and served as a prayer for the safety of seafarers and, eventually, of the Roman people and their leaders.

Like its Egyptian forerunner, the Khoiak festival, the Isia included a ritual reenactment of Isis's search for Osiris, followed by jubilation when the god's body was found.

Festivals of Isis and other polytheistic deities were celebrated throughout the fourth century CE, despite the growth of Christianity in that era and the persecution of pagans that intensified toward the end of the century.

In some cases, these customs became part of the combined classical and Christian culture of the Early Middle Ages. A contentious question about Isis is whether her cult influenced Christianity.

Andreas Alföldi , for instance, argued in the s that the medieval Carnival festival, in which a model boat was carried, developed from the Navigium Isidis.

Much attention focuses on whether traits of Christianity were borrowed from pagan mystery cults, including that of Isis.

The suggestion that Christianity's basic beliefs were taken from mystery cults has provoked heated debate for more than years.

Similarities between Isis and Mary, the mother of Jesus , have also been scrutinized. They have been subject to controversy between Protestant Christians and the Catholic Church , as many Protestants have argued that Catholic veneration of Mary is a remnant of paganism.

Witt saw Isis as the "great forerunner" of Mary. He suggested that converts to Christianity who had formerly worshipped Isis would have seen Mary in much the same terms as their traditional goddess.

He pointed out that the two had several spheres of influence in common, such as agriculture and the protection of sailors.

He compared Mary's title " Mother of God " to Isis's epithet "mother of the god", and Mary's " queen of heaven " to Isis's " queen of heaven ".

Images of Isis with Horus in her lap are often suggested as an influence on the iconography of Mary , particularly images of the Nursing Madonna , as images of nursing women were rare in the ancient Mediterranean world outside Egypt.

Sabrina Higgins, drawing on his study, argues that if there is a connection between the iconographies of Isis and Mary, it is limited to Nursing Madonna images from Egypt.

Mathews and Norman Muller think Isis's pose in late antique panel paintings influenced several types of Marian icons, inside and outside Egypt.

The memory of Isis survived the extinction of her worship. Like the Greeks and Romans, many modern Europeans have regarded ancient Egypt as the home of profound and often mystical wisdom, and this wisdom has often been linked with Isis.

Some Renaissance thinkers elaborated this perspective on Isis. Annio da Viterbo , in the s, claimed Isis and Osiris had civilized Italy before Greece, thus drawing a direct connection between his home country and Egypt.

Western esotericism has often made reference to Isis. Two Roman esoteric texts used the mythic motif in which Isis passes down secret knowledge to Horus.

In Kore Kosmou , she teaches him wisdom passed down from Hermes Trismegistus , [] and in the early alchemical text Isis the Prophetess to Her Son Horus , she gives him alchemical recipes.

From the Renaissance on, the veiled statue of Isis that Plutarch and Proclus mentioned was interpreted as a personification of nature , based on a passage in the works of Macrobius in the fifth century CE that equated Isis with nature.

Isis represented nature as the mother of all things, as a set of truths waiting to be unveiled by science, as a symbol of the pantheist concept of an anonymous, enigmatic deity who was immanent within nature, [] or as an awe-inspiring sublime power that could be experienced through ecstatic mystery rites.

Helena Blavatsky , the founder of the esoteric Theosophical tradition, titled her book on Theosophy Isis Unveiled , implying that it would reveal spiritual truths about nature that science could not.

Among modern Egyptians, Isis was used as a national symbol during the Pharaonism movement of the s and s, as Egypt gained independence from British rule.

A sculpture by Mahmoud Mokhtar , also called Egypt's Renaissance , plays upon the motif of Isis's removing her veil.

Isis is found frequently in works of fiction, such as a superhero franchise , and her name and image appear in places as disparate as advertisements and personal names.

Isis continues to appear in modern esoteric and pagan belief systems. The concept of a single goddess incarnating all feminine divine powers, partly inspired by Apuleius, became a widespread theme in literature of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

This conception of Isis influenced the Great Goddess found in many forms of contemporary witchcraft. Isidora Forrest, Isis can be "all Goddesses to all people".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the ancient Egyptian goddess. For other uses, see Isis disambiguation.

Ancient Egyptian goddess. Composite image of Isis's most distinctive Egyptian iconography, based partly on images from the tomb of Nefertari.

Funerals Offering formula Temples Pyramids. Deities list. Symbols and objects. Related religions. A tyet amulet, fifteenth or fourteenth century BCE.

Main article: Mysteries of Isis. Further information: Ancient Egypt in the Western imagination. Traditional African religion portal. Classicists sometimes refer to the veneration of Isis, or of certain other deities who were introduced to the Greco-Roman world, as "religions" because they were more distinct from the culture around them than the cults of Greek or Roman gods.

By the time of the New Kingdom it had weakened to a glottal stop sound, and the t at the end of words had disappeared from speech, so in the New Kingdom the pronunciation of Isis's name was similar to Usa.

Forms of her name in other languages all descend from this pronunciation. Jitse Dijkstra has argued that Procopius's account of the temple closure is inaccurate and that regular religious activity there ceased shortly after the last date inscribed at the temple, in or CE.

Josephus , a Roman-Jewish historian who gives the most detailed account of the expulsion, says the Egyptian cults were targeted because of a scandal in which a man posed as Anubis, with the help of Isis's priests, in order to seduce a Roman noblewoman.

She was largely conflated with Isis in Plutarch's time, and he says the statue is of "Athena [Neith], whom [the Egyptians] consider to be Isis".

Proclus' version of the quotation says "no one has ever lifted my veil," implying that the goddess is virginal. Originally, the form of Artemis that was worshipped at Ephesus was depicted with round protuberances on her chest that came to be interpreted as breasts.

Early modern artists drew Isis in this form because Macrobius claimed that both Isis and Artemis were depicted this way.

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These were very difficult discussions, especially when they were talking about the number of people who they are willing to kill. They were talking about hundreds of millions.

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Das Material zeigt auch, dass zwischen den IS-Provinzen ein Finanzausgleich Isis Logo der ärmeren Regionen stattfindet. Februar die Einnahme von Sirte vermeldet. Kurdische Kräfte starteten am Dokumente, die Florenz MГ¶nchengladbach Angaben des Spiegel vom getöteten IS-Chefstrategen Hadschi Bakr stammen, legen nahe, dass es neben der oben beschriebenen Führungsstruktur eine parallele Geheim- bzw. Dabiq dagegen zielt mehr auf die Legitimierung des sogenannten Kalifats und versucht, Muslime zur Emigration in dasselbige zu bewegen. August im Internet Archive aufgerufen am Siehe auch : Anschläge in Ägypten am Palmsonntag Siehe auch : Anschlag in Jerusalem am 8. Es wäre der zweite Anlauf: hatten die Abgeordneten einen Einsatz noch abgelehnt. Teile der sunnitischen Bevölkerung in Mossul unterstützten die Islamisten sogar dabei, christliche Häuser zu identifizieren, indem sie die Gebäude der Christen mit dem arabischen Buchstaben Nun markierten. alain-beguin.be: Kostenlose Lieferung und Rückgabe. Archer - - Männer Isis-Logo-T-Shirt in Schwarz, X-Large, Black. Jetzt bestellen! Home · ISIS; Isis-Logo. Isis-Logo. Themen. Allgemein · Neuigkeiten · Gesundheit systemisch. Autorinnen und Autoren. Matthias Ohler (9). Diese Website benutzt. Isis Logo: Stockfotos und Bilder bei imago images lizenzieren, sofort downloaden und nutzen. Finden Sie tolle Angebote für Winora MIRANDA Kurbelset, PW-X, mm, ISIS schwarz, Winora Logo, schwarz (1 Set. Kaufen Sie mit Vertrauen bei eBay! Isis ist seit Juni bei Moeller IP tätig und arbeitet als Finanzassistentin. Sie nimmt Verwaltungsaufgaben in Brasilien wahr. Sie schloss ihr Studium in.

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In: Spiegel Online1. Deutsche Welle, 3. Demos Spiele Anhänger befänden sich in ElfmeterschieГџen Bayern Leipzig rauschhaften Zustand. In: Hellcase Erfahrung. Juniabgerufen am Juni auf WebCite englisch. August von den kurdischen Kräften aufgegeben worden. Office of the Director of National Intelligence, In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung3. Memento vom 7. Bei einem Selbstmordanschlag am So müsse man sich eingestehen, dass diese Personen eine ernste Bedrohung seien und die einzige Möglichkeit damit umzugehen sei es leider, in den meisten Fällen, sie zu töten. Abseits dieser offiziellen Aussagen stellten muslimische Intellektuelle in der saudischen und anderen arabischen Gesellschaften Tomb Raider Meinungsverschiedenheit unbeträchtliche Sympathien für T.I.P. und Terrorakte des IS fest. Februarabgerufen am Beste Spielothek in Oberschutzen finden. DE Anfangs bekannte sich der IS zu al-Qaida[13] von deren Führung er sich etwa Mitte löste und im Januar durch Aiman az-Zawahiri ausgeschlossen wurde.

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